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August 21, 2020

Clinical Reports

  • Metformin Use Is Associated with Increased Incidence of Acidosis but not Mortality in Individuals with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line medication for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its impact on the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19 and T2D remains to be clarified. This retrospective study in a cohort of 1,213 hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D indicated that metformin use was significantly associated with a higher incidence of acidosis, particularly in cases with severe COVID-19, but not with 28-day COVID-19-related mortality. Furthermore, metformin use was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation. Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.

Diagnostics

  • Rescission of Guidances and Other Informal Issuances Concerning Premarket Review of Laboratory Developed Tests

    By executive order, the Food and Drug Administration will not require premarket review of laboratory developed tests ("LDT") absent notice-and-comment rulemaking, as opposed to through guidance documents, compliance manuals, website statements, or other informal issuances. Those seeking approval or clearance of, or an emergency use authorization ("EUA") for an LDT may nonetheless voluntarily submit a premarket approval application, premarket notification or an EUA request, respectively, but are not required to do so, and FDA will adjudicate those submissions.

  • The Interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostic Tests

    Although diagnostic laboratory testing is utilized ubiquitously by physicians and encountered regularly by individuals receiving medical care, several aspects of test interpretation are incompletely understood by medical communities and the general population, creating a significant challenge in minimizing the damage caused by disease spread through informed decision making and proper testing utilization. In this article, the general principles of test interpretation are reviewed and applied to specific examples, such as whether asymptomatic individuals should be tested, what it means to test positive (or negative), and how to interpret tests for “immunity passports”. Unexpectedly, the answers seem to run contrary to many of the popular narratives about testing as a tool for managing COVID-19.

Epidemiology

  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities Among COVID-19 Cases in Workplace Outbreaks by Industry Sector — Utah, March 6–June 5, 2020

    As of June 5, 2020, Utah Department of Health reported 277 COVID-19 outbreaks, 210 (76%) of which occurred in workplaces. Approximately 12% (1,389 of 11,448) of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Utah were associated with workplace outbreaks. Nearly one half of all workplace outbreaks occurred in three sectors: Manufacturing (43; 20%), Construction (32; 15%) and Wholesale Trade (29; 14%); 58% (806 of 1,389) of workplace outbreak-associated cases occurred in these three sectors. Although 24% of Utah’s workforce in all 15 affected sectors identified as Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) or a race other than non-Hispanic white (nonwhite), 73% (970 of 1,335) of workplace outbreak-associated COVID-19 cases were in persons who identified as Hispanic or nonwhite. Systemic social inequities have resulted in the overrepresentation of Hispanic and nonwhite workers in frontline occupations where exposure to SARS-CoV-2, might be higher; extra vigilance in these sectors is needed to ensure prevention and mitigation strategies are applied equitably and effectively to workers of racial and ethnic groups disproportionately affected by COVID-19. 

Situation Dashboards

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World Health Organization (WHO)

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Situation from World Health Organization (WHO)
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Johns Hopkins University (JHU)

Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at JHU
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COVID-19 in US and Canada

1Point3Acres Real-Time Coronavirus (COVID-19) Updates in US and Canada with Credible Sources
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Genomic Epidemiology COVID-19

Genomic Epidemiology of (COVID-19) Maintained by the Nextstrain team, enabled by data from GISAID.

Sources for COVID-19 Information

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World Health Organization (WHO)

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Centers for Disease Control, US

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International Society for Infectious Diseases

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This Week in Virology (TWIV)

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